Link to Gendercide Watch using these images:

Gendercide Links


[More links will be added
as new case-studies are posted.]

Genocide Studies | Bosnia-Herzegovina & Srebrenica | Maternal Mortality | Bangladesh | The Anfal Campaign | The Armenian Genocide | "Honour" Killings & Blood Feuds | Military Conscription / Impressment | The Nanjing Massacre | East Timor | Soviet Prisoners-of-War | The Jewish Holocaust | Stalin's Purges | Rwanda | Kashmir / Punjab / The Delhi Massacre | European Witch-Hunts | Kosovo | Corvée (Forced) Labour | Incarceration / The Death Penalty | The Montreal Massacre | Colombia

Link to the Aegis Genocide Prevention Initiative

Genocide Studies

Aegis Genocide Prevention Initiative
A UK-based project that "will attempt to identify the causes, predict the development and prevent the incidence of genocide. Aegis is a unique initiative for which there is no pre-existing organisational model. It is designed to develop a powerful network that focuses the strengths of all those organisations, governmental and non-governmental, which already have an involvement in some aspect of reaction to or prevention of genocide. It will distil and disseminate the most useful and accurate knowledge available, providing advice on strategic planning for genocide prevention."

Prevent Genocide International
"Prevent Genocide International is a nonprofit educational organization established in 1998 with the purpose of bringing about the elimination of the crime of genocide. The organizaton makes particular use of the Internet as a way of linking persons around the world in a transnational network of global civic engagement and action." A multilingual site (German, French, Spanish, English).

Campaign to End Genocide
"A new global coalition dedicated to creating the international institutions and the political will to end genocide forever."

The Genocide Research Project:
Links to Other Resources for Teaching and Research on Genocide

The single most useful and extensive collection of links and resources on genocide studies, compiled by the Genocide Research Project of the University of Memphis and the Pennsylvania State University.

Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies (MIGS)
The home page of the institute established by, among others, leading genocide scholars Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn.

Center for Holocaust, Genocide and Peace Studies
The home page of the academic program at the University of Nevada, Reno, directed by Dr. Viktoria Hertling.

Genocide Studies Program
Home page of the Yale University program directed by noted Cambodia scholar Ben Kiernan. Includes materials on "Theory and Analysis," "History and Description," and "Detection and Prevention."

Freedom, Democracy, Peace;
Power, Democide, and War

Compiled by R.J. Rummel, one of the leading scholars of genocide, and coiner of the term "democide" ("murder by government"). Includes over 900 documents and some 4,000 pages of text supporting the theory of democide, as well as an onsite search engine and useful links. See also the companion site, Democide.Net.

Web Genocide Documentation Centre:
Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings

An exceedingly helpful page of links compiled by Dr. Stuart Stein of the University of the West of England.

Yahoo! Full Coverage: Human Rights
A wide-ranging compilation of recent reporting on human-rights issues, with an additional link to materials on genocide.

Webster University's Center for the Study
of the Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights

"Genocide is the most extreme threat to fulfillment of [human] needs and aspirations, and the Holocaust perhaps the most horrible example of their systematic deprivation. The Webster University Center for the Study of the Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights takes as its mission the education of our students, our faculty, our community and ourselves."

Holocaust and Genocide Links
A resource list prepared by Linda M. Woolf of Webster University (see above).

The Canadian Museum of Genocide
"In order to promote a true understanding of the nature of genocide and to ensure the realization that the crime can assume a variety of forms and infect the most sophisticated as well as the most primitive of societies, it behooves Canada to endow its citizens with a genocide museum that will reflect the full complexity of the phenomenon."

Crimes of War
Hosted by American University, this project is a collaborative effort of journalists, lawyers, and scholars "that seeks to raise awareness of the laws of war." Resources at the site include an online magazine, featured essays, analysis, a discussion forum, information on future seminars, and related resources. The essays are concise, cover a range of international topics, and link to related items on the site.

Gendercide and Genocide
By Gendercide Watch executive director Adam Jones: the first comparative and global-historical treatment of gendercides against both men and women; published in Journal of Genocide Research, June 2000.

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment
of the Crime of Genocide

The full text of the 1946 U.N. General Assembly resolution.

Link to the Community of Bosnia


Internet Resources on Bosnia
An excellent guide to 'Net resources produced by the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College, London.

Peacenet's Balkans Pages -- Bosnia
Another fine and diverse collection of Bosnia links.

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
The home page of the ICTY at The Hague, Netherlands.

War Criminal Watch
"War Criminal Watch was created by the Coalition for International Justice to track and publicize the accused criminal acts of indicted suspects for war crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. We have attempted to compile a dossier on each indicted suspect, including the indictment itself, location information, and links to any important or particularly relevant news stories and articles."
"The first Bosnian group on the Internet ... connecting the people and friends of Bosnia and Herzegovina across the world." With many links to resources and research materials.

Community of Bosnia
"The Community of Bosnia (COB) is an American-based voluntary organization located in Philadelphia area of Pennsylvania. It supports rebuilding of a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural Bosnia. It provides educational opportunities for a small number of Bosnian students, regardless of ethnic or religious identity, whose lives have been disrupted by war and ethnic cleansing."

The Bosnian Institute
"The Bosnian Institute, London, seeks to educate and inform on the history, present reality and culture and culture of Bosnia-Herzegovina and promotes the growth of a pluralist democratic society in the region."

Gender and Ethnic Conflict in ex-Yugoslavia
A 1994 article focusing on gender and the Bosnian war, by Gendercide Watch executive director Adam Jones.

Link to the Women of Srebrenica

Women of Srebrenica
"The task of this NGO is not, as you might think from the name, to fight for women's rights. The task is to search for more than 10,000 people missing in Europe's largest massacre, committed by the Bosnian Serb Army." Includes the full text of the December 1999 U.N. report on Srebrenica.

Srebrenica Justice Campaign
"Following a tour of Britain by the Women of Srebrenica, a campaign -- The Srebrenica Justice Campaign -- was launched to support their demands. We are now linked with groups across the world to form Srebrenica Justice International."

Massacre in Srebrenica
A collection of links and primary documents on the gendercide, with a fine range of mass-media articles, including Bianca Jagger's "The Betrayal of Srebrenica."

"To Bury My Brother's Bones"
A detailed Amnesty International report on the missing men of Srebrenica.

"Srebrenica: A Cry from the Grave"
Information, with helpful additional resources, about the PBS/WNET documentary on "the worst case of genocide in Europe since World War II."

"Srebrenica, July 1995: A Photo Gallery"
A photo gallery documenting the events surrounding the Srebrenica massacres, prepared by Gendercide Watch.

Link to Safe Motherhood (

Maternal Mortality

Safe Motherhood
"Safe Motherhood is a global effort to increase maternal safety and reduce the number of deaths and illnesses associated with pregnancy and childbirth."

Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA
The most detailed recent global analysis of the crisis of maternal mortality.

Staying Alive!
Transcript of a 2004 Lifeonline documentary about maternal mortality, focusing on Bangladesh.

League Table of Maternal Death
Produced by UNICEF: a chart listing maternal mortality per 100,000 live births around the world.

Commentary: A Failure of Imagination
Peter Adamson's powerful article on maternal mortality, cited extensively in our case-study.

Safe Motherhood and the World Bank:
Lessons from Ten Years of Experience

"This review of 10 years' experience describes cost-effective strategies, discusses factors to be considered in program planning and implementation, and recommends ways that development agencies such as the [World] Bank can assist developing countries in improving maternal health outcomes." Requires the Adobe Acrobat reader to access the full text.

UN Agencies Analyse Cause Of Maternal Death
A fairly recent (November 1999) article from The Zambia Post, Lusaka.

Link to the Liberation War Museum Online


The Liberation War Museum Online
Web project of the only memorial to the victims of "The Forgotten Genocide" in Bangladesh. Sponsored by the Muktijuddha Smriti Trust.

Dhaka '71
Grim images and analysis, focusing on the genocide as it was implemented in the Bangladeshi capital. Prepared by Atikur Rahman.

Genocide in Bangladesh in 1971
A page focusing on the Bangladesh genocide in the context of other 20th-century genocides, prepared by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq.

Bangla Nuremberg
A New York-based organization dedicated to denouncing the Pakistani war criminals responsible for the genocide, and calling for their trial by an international tribunal.

Balkan Tragedy: A Re-enactment
of the 1971 Genocide in Bangladesh

The Travail of Ashrafuzzaman Khan's Infamous Diary

Two articles by Jamal Hasan: the first, an interesting comparison of the Bangladesh and Kosovo case-studies; the second, a profile of accused war-criminal Ashrafuzzaman Khan, now leading "an active life" in New York City.

Pinochet and Tikka: Birds of Same Feather!
A 1998 article by A.H. Jaffor Ullah, comparing the case of Chilean general Augusto Pinochet with those of the Pakistani perpetrators of the 1971 genocide, "still alive ... and respected citizens of the land."

An End to Revisionist History
A profile of "Song of Freedom," "the first-ever full-length feature film on Bangladesh's 1971 liberation war."

Link to the Kurdish Human Rights Project

The Anfal Campaign
(Iraqi Kurdistan)

Kurdish Human Rights Project
"Working to protect and promote the human rights of all persons living throughout the Kurdish regions of Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey and the former Soviet Union ... irrespective of race, religion, sex, political persuasion or other belief or opinion."

Genocide in Kurdistan
A dissertation examining the genocide against the Kurds and calling for the establishment of an international criminal tribunal. Submitted to Gendercide Watch by Heval Hylan.
"A platform providing independent information on Kurds and their human heritage. ... The Internet has opened the unprecedented opportunity for the Kurds in various corners of the earth to discuss among themselves and provide to others information on their culture, politics and heritage." Includes the text of Dr. Khaled Salih's article, "Anfal: The Kurdish Genocide in Iraq", originally published in Digest of Middle East Studies.

Kurdawary Webside
A wideranging multimedia introduction to the Kurdish people, with a collection of key documents from the Anfal Campaign.

The Middle East: The Kurds - A Regional Issue
A first-rate introduction to Kurdish history and politics, prepared in December 1995 by Sarah Graham-Brown and Zina Sackur of Writenet.

The Kurds: People Without A Country
A useful chronology of the twentieth-century history of the Kurds, prepared by

Operation Anfal
A brief overview of Anfal written by Kirsten Schulze, lecturer in international history at the London School of Economics.

Kurdistan Democratic Party - Iraq (KDP)
Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK)
The websites of three of the leading Kurdish guerrilla groups struggling for an independent Kurdistan.

An extensive collection of links focusing on Kurdish political organizations.

Malper - The Best Kurdish Sites
Another selection of Kurdish links, including politics, media, music, and women.

Reckless Disregard
An introduction to the Kurdish struggle for statehood, by Vera Saeedpour, editor of The International Journal of Kurdish Studies. Argues that "The Kurdish issue at its core is simply this: A people with a distinct ethnic heritage aspires to control its own ancestral domains, and to be recognized as a nation-state in the modern world."

The Survival of Saddam
An excellent accompanying site for the PBS Frontline documentary. Includes a section on "The Kurds' Story".

Turkey's Kurdish Problem
An overview of the situation facing Kurds in Turkey, by Stephen Kinzer of The New York Times (February 21, 1999).

Link to the Armenian National Institute

The Armenian Genocide

Armenian National Institute
The home page of the organization "dedicated to the study, research, and affirmation of the Armenian Genocide." Perhaps the best-available collection of links and other resources on the holocaust.

The Armenian Genocide
A page of links prepared by the Armenian Web Ring.

Photo Collections of the Armenian Genocide
A grimly unforgettable collection of images prepared by the Armenian National Institute.

The Armenian Genocide
Another useful page of links, prepared by the Armenian Students Association (CSUN).

Armenian Genocide
"Basic summary of events, quotes, articles of the time, suggested readings and pictures."

Armenian Genocide
A collection of links and resources, including work by Vahakn N. Dadrian and useful bibliographical materials.

The Armenian Genocide: An Annotated Bibliography
An excellent list prepared by the Armenian National Committee of America.

Useful Answers to Frequent Questions on the Armenian Genocide
A good primer developed by the Armenian Research Center and written by Dr. Dennis R. Papazian.

The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-16.
"Full text of the British Blue Book prepared by Viscount James Bryce and Arnold Toynbee in 1916. Documents from various parts of the Ottoman Empire are put side by side to show a systematic plan of race extermination." (Hotbot summary)

Ambassador Morgenthau's Story
"Full text of the memoirs of Henry Morgenthau, the United States envoy to the Ottoman Empire in 1915-17. Reports key conversations with Young Turk officials and fellow diplomats. A classic." (Hotbot summary)

Link to The Jordanian National Committee for Women

"Honour" Killings and Blood Feuds

Pakistan: Honour Killings of Girls and Women
A recent and detailed survey of "honour" killings in Pakistan, by Amnesty International.

Honor Killing: The Murder of Samia Sarwar
A page of materials on the April 1999 "honour" killing of Samia Sarwar in Lahore, Pakistan, compiled by

Violence Against Women in the Name of Honor
A fine overview of "honour" killings in Pakistan, prepared by

"Manavi ... is a community based organization for women who trace their cultural heritage to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Manavi's goal is to increase awareness of women's rights in society and encourage social change to end all violence against them."

The Jordanian National Committee for Women
Website of the government-affiliated organization that has done much to raise consciousness about "honour" killings and other forms of violence against Jordanian women.

National Jordanian Campaign to Eliminate
the So-Called "Crimes of Honour"

A statement by "a group of Jordanian citizens who have no personal, political, or racial interests, but are gathered with [the] one unifying issue" of "honour" killings of women.

Crimes of Honour
An overview of the powerful video documentary on "honour" killings, concentrating on Jordan and the West Bank (Palestine). "A scorcher... a heartscalding expose of blithe murder." - Critical List.

Link to The Museum of the Nanjing Massacre

The Nanjing Massacre

Alliance in Memory of Victims of the Nanjing Massacre
"Our organization has as it aims: to promote memorial services in Nanjing and cities around the world ... to encourage related research, including interviewing survivors, collecting books, bibliographies and original material about the Nanjing Massacre ... to publicize the tragedy and the memory of its victims, especially in the Western world. ... [and] to take concrete actions or steps to achieve the purpose of justice."

WWW Memorial Hall of the Victims in the Nanjing Massacre
Site devoted to the memorial project constructed on the bank of the Yangtze (Changjiang) River, where Chinese men were killed by the tens of thousands.

The Nanking Atrocities
"An impressive collection of source materials, including numerous photographs and video clips, supports this well-researched site ..." Constructed by Masato Kajimoto.
Web memorial commemorating the victims of the massacre.

Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre in Nanjing
An English translation of a classified Chinese document on the Nanjing Massacre. Extensive and detailed. Written by Gao Xingzu, Wu Shimin, Hu Yungong, & Cha Ruizhen.

The Nanking Massacre
An introduction and overview, with links, compiled by Dan Reeves.

Japanese War Crimes
Focuses on Japanese atrocities in China and elsewhere during the Second World War, with links to other resources.

Bamboo Shoots
"A new digest of comment on Japanese war crimes and their consequences."

Link to TimorNet

East Timor

An excellent collection of Timor links compiled by the University of Coimbra in Portugal. Includes up-to-date news coverage.

East Timor Action Network (ETAN)
A link to the largest East Timor activist group, a member of the International Federation for East Timor. Includes news reports and urgent-action bulletins. Link also to the Canadian office of the East Timor Alert Network.

"East Timor's Struggle for Independence"
A useful collection of essays and articles compiled by Znet. Includes a feature by Gendercide Watch executive director Adam Jones, "East Timor: Where Are the People?".

East Timor
A well-organized collection of links to news reports and primary documents, compiled by the Asia Observer.

East Timor Press
"The official site for East Timorese Independent Print News Media," based in Australia. Includes current and past editions of The Timor Post.

Gender-Selective Atrocities in East Timor
An exhaustive compilation of news reports from September-December 1999, highlighting the numerous accounts of gender-selective killings of Timorese males. Compiled by Gendercide Watch executive director Adam Jones.

The Struggle for East Timor
"A relatively painless primer on the history of the conflict in East Timor," prepared by Jeffrey Benner for Mother Jones.

East Timor News
A fine and up-to-date collection of links and news reports, compiled by the WorldNews Network.

East Timor Index Page
Links on genocide in East Timor compiled by Dr. Stuart Stein of the University of the West of England.

Indonesia (the Republic of) and East Timor
A collection of links to Amnesty International publications, bulletins, and news releases on Indonesia and East Timor from 1996 to the present.

Link to The Campaign against Conscription, Compulsory Service, and the Military

Military Conscription/

War Resisters International
British-based organization founded in 1921. "War Resisters' International is a network of pacifists and nonviolent activists on every continent, who work on national, regional and international levels, as well as in local communities, to end war and the causes of war. ... We build support campaigns for individual objectors and anti-war groups that come under attack for standing up for their beliefs. And we promote active nonviolent strategies for transforming militaristic societies."

The Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors
Based in the U.S. "The Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors (CCCO) was founded in 1948 to protect and promote the rights of conscientious objectors to war. Our long term goals include demilitarizing our schools and communities, improving conditions for military personnel who come to realize their objections to war, and eliminating the Selective Service System. CCCO's counselor network has helped tens of thousands act on their consciences by refusing to participate in war and preparation for war."

The Religious Society of Friends
Home page of the Quakers, the religious group that has most consistently and passionately opposed all forms of war and conscription.

The National War Tax Resistance Coordinating Committee
"The National War Tax Resistance Coordinating Committee (NWTRCC) is a coalition of groups from across the U.S., formed in 1982 to provide information and support to people involved in or considering some form of war tax resistance (WTR)."

Anti-Conscription Links
An excellent collection of links to anti-conscription organizations and related resources. Includes a wide array of country-specific links.

Stop Conscription in Europe Now!
"We demand the abolition of conscription in all European countries! The campaign is open for any organization or individual to join." Includes links and contact information for anti-conscription organizations in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Russia, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. Also calls for "International Protection for Deserters."

Anti-Conscription Radical Initiative
"An initiative for the abolition of conscription, compulsory military and civilian service in the Czech Republic and, within the framework of international co-operation, all around the world. ... The goal is the total abolition of conscription and other forms of forced service under whatever situation." Also maintains an international anti-conscription mailing list.

Né Giusta Né Utile (Neither Fair Nor Useful)
Italian-based initiative (the link is to the English version of their homepage). "Every year over 250 thousand young men are forced to give up 10 months of their life in order to offer a service that our Movement considers unfair and useless, if not harmful. It is not fair because we believe the State must not arbitrarily and systematically oblige its citizens to go into a service, armed or not, against their will. ... The present conscription system is not even useful, if it has ever been, because a conscript army does certainly not respond to today's defense needs; neither can it be useful to society as a whole to exploit the underpaid and mandatory objectors' work, forcing them to delay their careers."

Stop Conscription in Taiwan!
"Males of Taiwan are not born free men! ... As of now, men aged 18 to 40 are liable (TW5A: A3) for 22-month military service (TW5A: A16-1-1), or 26-month alternative service if approved. Conscientious objectors with religious training and belief for at least 2 years serve 33-month alternative service. Conviction, or failure to respond to a draft notice, carries imprisonment of up to 5 years. ... Why do so many countries conscript males but not females? It should be due to traditional belief rather than physical differences."

The Military Service and Conscription Law Page
A fine page of background information on the history and current status of conscription worldwide.

The Emma Goldman Papers
A 1917 speech against conscription by the great American anarchist, jailed and finally exiled for her opposition to conscription policies in World War I.

The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers
"The Coalition's primary objectives are: The adoption of, and adherence to, an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child prohibiting the military recruitment and use in hostilities of any person younger than 18 years of age, and the recognition and enforcement of this standard by all armed forces and groups, both governmental and non-governmental."

Link to the Anarchist Black Cross Federation

Soviet Prisoners-of-War

Soviet POWs: Photo Album
A collection of images of life and death in the Soviet POW camps, prepared by the Simon Wiesenthal Center.

Operation Barbarossa
An overview of the Nazi invasion of Russia and the subsequent course of the war on the eastern front, the greatest military conflict in history.

ABC Federation
"This web site is designed for the purposes of informing the Internet community about political prisoners and prisoners of war, the movement for their freedom and the activities, directives and structure of the Anarchist Black Cross Federation (ABCF), which organizes programs and events for the material and political support of those prisoners."

Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
The full text of the convention, adopted on August 12, 1949, by the Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War.

Russian-American Joint Commission
on Prisoners of War and Missing in Action

"In 1992, the Russian and American Presidents established a joint commission to search for former Soviet and American servicemen who had been taken prisoner or reported missing in action in the period from World War II to the present day."


The Jewish Holocaust

Yad Vashem
The home page of the Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem.

Museum of Tolerance:
Multimedia Learning Center

Created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center: "A comprehensive resource on the Holocaust and World War II, with over 3,000 text files, and tens of thousands of photos."

A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust
"An overview of the people and events of the Holocaust through photographs, documents, art, music, and literature."

The Holocaust History Project
"The Holocaust History Project is a free archive of documents, photographs, recordings, and essays regarding the Holocaust, including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial."

Holocaust / Shoah Educational Projects and Resources
A page of links created by David Dickerson.

Academic Info: Holocaust Studies
"An annotated directory of Internet resources."

Search Academic Info

Cybrary of the Holocaust
"As time passes, memory fades. The Cybrary of the Holocaust uses art, discussion groups, photos, poems, and a wealth of facts to preserve powerful memories and to educate scholars and newcomers alike about the Holocaust."

Women and the Holocaust
Prepared by Judy Cohen: "Dedicated to all those women who were murdered while pregnant. Holding little hands of children or carrying infants in their arms on the way to be gassed. In hiding. ... Or as fighters in the resistance: in ghettos, forests, partisan units. And to the lives of those few who survived and bravely carried on."

Court TV: A Look Back at Nuremberg
An excellent collection of materials on the Nuremberg war-crimes trials, including court transcripts.

Link to Soviet History - Stalin Era

Stalin's Purges

Stalin, Joseph
An overview of Stalin's life and crimes, assembled by Discovery Channel School and written by Albert Marrin, Chairman, Department of History, Yeshiva College.

Soviet History - Stalin's Era
A fine collection of links and resources on Stalin's rule, prepared by the Slavic Research Center at Hokkaido University, Japan.

J.V. Stalin Internet Library
An extensive collection of Stalin's speeches, compiled by

Stalin: The Red Tsar
A brief biographical overview of Stalin, prepared by

The Purge
A good short overview of Stalin's purges in lecture form, by Prof. Gerhard Rempel of Western New England College.

And They All Confessed ...
Another overview of the purge and "show trials," by the Swedish historian Gudrun Persson; illustrated.

The Moscow Trials
A Trotskyist critique of the trials, written by Rob Sewell and originally published in Socialist Appeal.

Charter of the Cyber-USSR
A collection of links and resources, often hysterically funny (!), on the Soviet era, with an emphasis on the Stalin years. Project coordinated by Hugo S. Cunningham.

Section 58, Criminal Code of the RSFSR (1934)
The full text of the infamous "Counterrevolutionary Crimes" section of the Soviet penal code that was used to condemn hundreds of thousands to death and millions more to incarceration.

Report of Court Proceedings:
The Case of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite Terrorist Centre

The transcript, in English, of one of the key "show trials" of the purge period (in 1936).

N.I. Bukharin's Last Plea
The text of the address delivered by Bukharin, one of Stalin's key rivals, at the conclusion of his 1938 trial ("The Case of the Anti-Soviet Bloc of Rightists and Trotskyites").

How Many Died? A Summary of Stalin's Victims
An evaluation of the scale of Stalin's holocaust, written by Jonathan DeMersseman.

Link to the Human Rights Watch index on Kosovo


Genocide and Conflict in Kosovo
A superb collection of links and resources compiled by Dr. Stuart Stein.

Kosovo Conflict Retrospective
A collection of Web resources for teaching on Kosovo, compiled by TeachersFirst.

Kosovo / Kosova: As Seen, As Told
Prepared by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE): the full text of a comprehensive 1999 report on Serb atrocities in Kosovo, with unusually detailed attention to gender issues.

Kosovo: Autonomy, Colonization, Genocide
A July 1999 report by the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights.

Kosovo: Focus on Human Rights
The index page for reports on Kosovo by Human Rights Watch, which consistently provided the most detailed and timely reports on atrocities by Serbs (and others) in the territory.

Kosovo: Orders of Magnitude, Gendercide in Kosovo, and Effacing the Male: Gender, Misrepresentation, and Exclusion in the Kosovo War
Three essays by Gendercide Watch executive director Adam Jones on the scale and character of Serb atrocities in Kosovo.

Link to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda


Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda
The most detailed report available online about the events in Rwanda in 1994. Written by Alison Des Forges and published by Human Rights Watch in March 1999.

The Third Genocide
By Alain Destexhe: one of the best brief overviews of the Rwandan genocide, published in Foreign Affairs (Winter 1994/95).

"An annotated guide to Internet resources on Rwanda for students, faculty, librarians, teachers, journalists, businesspeople and others."

Africa News Online: Rwanda
An excellent digest of news reports, mostly from African sources, about Rwanda and the aftermath of the 1994 genocide. See also the dispatches from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, prepared and distributed by U.N. staff.

Rudy Brueggemann's Rwanda Page
A fine selection of original reporting and photographs from and about Rwanda; Brueggemann is a writer, photographer, and online publisher based in Seattle, Washington. Includes a page of Rwanda-related links.

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
Home page of the Criminal Tribunal, based in Arusha, Tanzania. Includes the full text of judgments already handed down by the Tribunal, as well as updates on the trials of accused perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide.

The Triumph of Evil
Resources compiled for the 1999 PBS Frontline documentary on "how the west ignored warnings of the 1994 Rwanda genocide and turned its back on the victims." Includes interviews, a chronology, and further readings.

Human Rights - Rwanda
A page of links assembled by Kevin Reid of

The International Response to Conflict and Genocide:
Lessons from the Rwanda Experience

A detailed report prepared by the Steering Committee of the Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda, and published in the Journal of Humanitarian Assistance.

Preventing Genocide:
How the Early Use of Force Might Have Succeeded in Rwanda

A 1998 report written by Scott Feil and published by the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict; with a forward by Lt.-Gen. Romeo Dallaire, commander of UNAMIR forces in Rwanda at the time of the genocide.

U.S. Complicity by Silence: Genocide in Rwanda
A scathing indictment of U.S. policy during the Rwandan holocaust, written by Rakiya Omaar and Alex de Waal, and published in Covert Action Quarterly.

Report of the Independent Inquiry
into the Actions of the United Nations
during the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda

The complete text of the 1999 U.N. report on its failure to oppose the Rwandan genocide. See also U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan's response to the report: "I acknowledge this failure and express my deep remorse."

Genocide and Impunity:
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
after Five Years

A short evaluation of the ICTR's performance, prepared by the Public Education Center of The New York Times.

Rwanda: Timeline and Related Articles
A chronology of Rwandan history in the 19th and 20th centuries, along with links to New York Times coverage during and after the 1994 genocide.

Link to

Kashmir / Punjab / The Delhi Massacre
A well-designed and regularly-updated site on the Kashmir conflict, with historical background and a focus on human-rights abuses.

Kashmir as De Facto Disputed Territory
A fine collection of links providing a diversity of viewpoints on the Kashmir crisis. Compiled by the World Wide Web Virtual Library.

Jammu & Kashmir
"Find out what Jammu & Kashmir is -- and then ask the right questions about this unfortunate state, caught in the crossfire."

Death in Kashmir
The Birth of a Nation
Kashmir: The Unending War

Three excellent feature articles on the Kashmir crisis, by Pankaj Mishra in The New York Review of Books (September 21, October 5, and October 19, 2000). Includes some attention to the gender dimension.

Kashmir Information Network
The site provides background on the historical roots of the Kashmir conflict and the contemporary situation, from a strongly pro-Indian perspective.

Human Rights in Kashmir
Site denouncing Indian repression in Kashmir, with an array of links to human-rights sources on the conflict.

Behind the Kashmir Conflict: Abuses by Indian Security Forces and Militant Groups Continue
An in-depth investigation of the human-rights situation in Jammu and Kashmir, prepared by Human Rights Watch.

Evidence of Extra-Judicial Killings in Punjab
A critical overview of atrocities in Punjab, written by Ram Narayan Kumar.

Burning Punjab
A site constructed by Sikh nationalists to protest Indian repression. Includes print and photographic materials on the Delhi Massacre.
Another Sikh nationalist site, including photographs from the Delhi Massacre..

The Delhi Massacre:
An Example of Malicious Government

A detailed discussion of the 1984 massacre in Delhi, with heart-rending survivors' testimony. Compiled by Khalsa Human Rights.

European Witch-Hunts

The European Witch-Hunts

The Witch-Hunt
A fine, if erratically translated, collection of commentaries, primary documents, and links on the medieval witch-hunts. Produced by the University of Köln, Germany.

The Witches: Myth and Reality
A well-designed and profusely-illustrated overview of the phenomenon of witchcraft and witch persecution, by Adrian Nicholas McGrath of ParaScope.

Recent Developments in the Study of The Great European Witch Hunt
An interesting and eye-opening essay on the myths and realities of the witch-hunt, written by Jenny Gibbons, a scholar of medieval history.

European Witch Hunts
An annotated bibliography, with Web links.

Best Witches
"A discussion of the historical witchtrials of Europe and New England," prepared by Joan Pontius of Rutgers University. One of the most extensive sites on witchcraft and witch-hunts, richly illustrated. Also includes The Malleus Maleficarum, perhaps the most famous work of misogyny (woman-hatred) ever written.

Early Modern Europe: The Witch Hunts
An excellent collection of links to primary and secondary research materials, prepared by the Hanover College History Department.

The Witchcraft Bibliography Project
Perhaps the most extensive set of bibliographical resources on the witch-hunts and related issues.

The Witch Hunts: The End of Magic and Miracles
An online excerpt from Helen Ellerbe's book, The Dark Side of Christian History.

Salem, Massachusetts: What About Witches?
An introduction to the famous Salem trials that became the basis of Arthur Miller's play, The Crucible. Created by the modern Salem municipality.

Gendercide in Rural Tanzania: Sukuma Witch Killings
By Simeon Mesaki of the Sociology Department, University of Dar-es-Salaam. Note: this .pdf file requires the Adobe Acrobat reader..

Link to the International Labour Organization

Corvée (Forced) Labour

The International Labour Organization
The homepage of the pre-eminent international organization for labour standards and practices. Includes the "Forced Labour Convention, 1930", the full text of the ILO's key document limiting the legal imposition of forced labour to "adult able-bodied males."

The Fair Labour Association
"A non-profit organization established to protect the rights of workers in the United States and worldwide ... made up of consumer, human and labor rights groups." Opposes all forms of "forced labor, whether in the form of prison labor, indentured labor, bonded labor or otherwise."

That Magnificent African Cake:
Exhibit on the Belgian Congo

A wryly-titled gallery of photographs and illustrations of the Congo "rubber terror," compiled by Jennifer Brainard of HistoryWiz.

The Butcher of Congo
A profile of Belgium's King Leopold, architect of the genocidal "rubber terror," written by Baffour Ankomah and published in New African (October 1999.)

Heart of Darkness: Leopold's Congo
A collection of fascinating turn-of-the-century articles from The New York Times about King Leopold and the contemporary accusations of Belgian cruelty in the Congo. Includes links to Times reviews of Adam Hochschild's book King Leopold's Ghost.

Congo's Forgotten Holocaust
An article about the "rubber terror" by Stephen Bates in the Daily Mail & Guardian (South Africa).

Reforming the Heart of Darkness:
The Congo Reform Movement in England and the United States

An excellent collection of links on the reform movement that succeeded in stemming the tide of atrocities in the Congo. Includes a link to the complete text of Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness.

Histoire de la Colonisation Belge du Congo
"A site by Patrick Cloos of Belgium designed to create reflection among Belgians and Congolese about the history of King Leopold's and Belgium's colonization of the Congo."

Forced Labor Camps Under Communism
A good, brief summary of the forced-labour system in Stalin's USSR.

Photos: Forced Labour
A powerful gallery of photographs of Jewish forced labourers under the Nazi terror. Part of A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust.

Japan's War Crime
A good collection of links on Japan's use of forced labour during World War II, focusing on the "comfort women" issue. Compiled by the Korean organization Choson Simbo.

Bibliography on "Comfort Women" and Related Issues
A useful collection of resources on Japanese forced labour, compiled by the Korean Studies program of the University of California at Berkeley.

Comfort Women: A Web Reference
An extensive set of links on the "comfort women" issue, prepared by Jerry D. Boucher and Chunghee Sarah Soh.

Forced Labour Under the Third Reich
A detailed examination of the Nazis' use of forced labour, attempting to establish reasonable compensation figures for the survivors. Prepared by Nathan Associates.

Forced Labor in Myanmar (Burma)
The full text of the International Labour Organization's in-depth report on perhaps the most atrocious contemporary instance of forced labour.

BurmaForum Los Angeles
"Your source for the latest information on current economic and political conditions in Burma (Myanmar), as well as American local government and corporate involvement." Includes a strong human rights/forced labour component.

Forced-Labor Logging in Burma
A report by Tim Keating prepared for Rainforest Relief.

Slavery: Additional Sources

Note: Forced labour has often been defined as a "slavery-like practice."

Slavery Today
"Many people believe that slavery is a thing of the past ... but it isn't. It exists today in countries like India, the Dominican Republic, Thailand, and Sudan." A typically fine compendium of sources and links by, this one prepared by Kevin Reid.

The American Anti-Slavery Group
"The only American organization solely dedicated to abolishing slavery worldwide. We monitor, document, and publicize the plight of slaves around the globe. Our special focus is on black chattel slavery in North Africa and involuntary servitude in the United States."

Link to the Amnesty International campaign against the death penalty

The Death Penalty

Focus on the Death Penalty
An excellent page of links and resources prepared by the Justice Center Website of the University of Alaska.

U.N. Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial,
Summary or Arbitrary Executions

Home page of the U.N.'s special representative (working under the aegis of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights).

Amnesty International - Against the Death Penalty
A page of links and information supporting AI's longstanding campaign against the death penalty.

Death Penalty Information Center (DPIC)
An award-winning, law-focused collection of links and information.

Death Penalty.Net
An anti-capital punishment site sponsored by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty
An imaginative and eye-catching site co-founded by Dave Parkinson and Tracy Lamourie. "We searched for a group in Canada fighting against the continued use of the death penalty in the USA. We felt that it was shameful that there was no active group in Canada giving a strong voice against the death penalty, and that since Canada and the US have such close relationship, our silence, especially in light of strong European initiatives against the death penalty in the US, was allowing Canada to collude with the US in state murder." Danish and Slovenian translations.

Death Row Roll Call
The Nation's project provides a calendar of scheduled execution dates in the U.S., and allows readers to e-mail state governors "requesting a stay on [the] execution and a moratorium on all executions in the state." Updated monthly.

Human Rights Watch Prison Project
"Prison massacres, dramatic protests, and violent guard abuse earn occasional news headlines, but the deplorable daily living conditions that are the plight of the great majority of the world's prisoners pass largely unnoticed. ... Human Rights Watch has conducted specialized prison research and campaigns for prisoners' rights since 1987, to focus international attention on prison conditions worldwide."

The Gulag Collection
An impressive collection of original artworks depicting life and death in the Soviet "gulag archipelago." Sponsored by the Jamestown Foundation.


The Montreal Massacre

December 6, 1989
A short and somewhat outdated page of links prepared by Men for Change.

December 6, 1989
A short and somewhat outdated page of links prepared by Men for Change.

The White Ribbon Campaign
"Men working to end men's violence against women. ... Wearing a white ribbon is a personal pledge never to commit, condone nor remain silent about violence against women."

Link to the Colombia Support Network


Colombia Support Network
"The Colombia Support Network is a non-governmental organization striving to improve the human rights situation in Colombia and build solidarity between the peoples of North America and Colombia. The Colombia Support Network is the largest, grassroots activist- oriented group in the U.S. focusing on Colombian human rights."

Colombia Human Rights Network
"The Colombia Human Rights Network formed in October 1990 as a way of pooling the efforts of several volunteer organizations working for peace and justice in Colombia in several cities in the United States. The Network's activities are directed at defending and promoting human rights in Colombia through coalition building between organizations in the United States and in Colombia."

Peace Brigades International
"Peace Brigades International (PBI) is a unique grassroots organization that explores and implements nonviolent approaches to peacekeeping and human rights support. ... PBI provides protective international accompaniment for individuals and organizations who have been threatened by political violence or who are otherwise at risk."

A bulletin about displaced persons in Colombia, in both Spanish and English.

A bilingual website on human rights in Colombia.

War on Drugs: Counterinsurgency Operations in Colombia
A strong collection of links exploring the relationship between the U.S.-sponsored "Drug War" and human-rights atrocities in Colombia.

1) War Without Quarter:
Colombia and International Humanitarian Law (1998)

2) Colombia's Killer Networks:
The Military-Paramilitary Partnership and the United States (1996)

Two seminal reports on atrocities in Colombia from Human Rights Watch.

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